Sensorimotor Neurophysiology

Publications

Jalaleddini, K., Niu, C., Chakravarthi Raja, S., Sohn, W.J., Loeb, G.E., Sanger, T., and Valero-Cuevas, F. Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, Part II: The role of fusimotor drive J. Neural Eng., at press dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/aa59bd, 2017.

Loeb, G.E. and Tsianos, G.A. Major remaining gaps in models of sensorimotor systems Front. Comput. Neurosci. dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2015.00070, 2015.

Loeb, G.E. and Mileusnic, M. Proprioceptors and models of transduction Scholarpedia 10(5):12390, 2015.

Loeb, G.E. and Davoodi, R. Musculoskeletal mechanics and modeling Scholarpedia, 2015.

Loeb, G.E. and Fishel, J.A. Bayesian Action & Perception: Representing the World in the Brain Frontiers in Neuroscience 8:341, doi: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00341, 2014.

Tsianos, G.A., Goodner, J. and Loeb, G.E. Useful properties of spinal circuits for learning and performing planar reaches J. Neural Eng. 11 (2014) 056006 (21pp), doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/11/5/056006, 2014.

Loeb, G.E. Spinal Cord, Integrated (Non CPG) Models of Encyc Comp Neurosci DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-7320-6_648-1, 2014.

Tsianos, G.A. and Loeb, G.E. Muscle physiology and modeling Scholarpedia 8(10):12388, 2013

De Rugy, A., Loeb, G.E. and Carroll, T.J. Are muscle synergies useful for neural control? Front. Comput. Neurosci., DOI: 10.3389, 2013.

Hauschild, M., Mulliken, G.H., Fineman, I., Loeb, G.E. and Anderson, R.A. Cognitive signals for brain-machine interfaces in posterior parietal cortex include continuous 3D trajectory commands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(42): 17075-17080, 2012.

Loeb, G.E., Optimal isn’t good enough. Biological Cybernetics, DOI 10.1007/s00422-012-0514-6, 2012.

De Rugy, A., Loeb, G.E., and Carroll, T.J. Muscle coordination is habitual rather than optimal. J. Neuroscience 32:7384-7391, 2012.

Raphael, G., Tsianos, G.A., and Loeb, G.E. Spinal-Like Regulator Facilitates Control of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Wrist The Journal of Neuroscience 30(28):9431-9444 2010.

Cheng, E.J. and Loeb, G.E. On the Use of Musculoskeletal Models to Interpret Motor Control Strategies from Performance Data. Journal Neural Engineering 5:232-253, 2008.

Kaliki, R.R., Davoodi, R. and Loeb, G.E. Prediction of Distal Arm Posture in 3-D Space from Shoulder Movements for Control of Upper Limb Prostheses. Proceedings of the IEEE, 96(7):1217-1225, 2008.

Song, D., Lan, N., Loeb, G.E. and Gordon, J. Model-Based Sensorimotor Integration for Multi-Joint Control: Development of a Virtual Arm Model, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Accepted February 5, 2008.

Hauschild, M., Davoodi, R., and Loeb, G.E. A Virtual Reality Environment for Designing and Fitting Neural Prosthetic Limbs. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 15(1):9-15, 2007.

Davoodi, R., Urata, C., Hauschild, M., Khachani, M. Loeb, G.E. Model-Based Development of Neural prostheses for Movement. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 54(11): 1909-1918, 2007.

Wolpaw,J.R., Loeb,G.E., Allison,B.Z., Donchin,E., do Nascimento,O.F., Heetderks,W.J., Nijboer,F., Shain,W.G. and Turner,J.N. BCI Meeting 2005–Workshop on signals and recording methods. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng, 14(2):138-41, 2006.

Mileusnic, M.P., Brown, I.E., Lan, N. and Loeb, G.E. Mathematical Models of Proprioceptors: I. Control and Transduction in the Muscle Spindle. J. Neurophysiol. 96:1772-1788, 2006.

Mileusnic, M.P. and Loeb, G.E. Mathematical models of proprioceptors: II. Structure and function of the Golgi tendon organ. J. Neurophysiol. 96:1789-1802, 2006.

Corneil, B.D., Olivier, E., Richmond, F.J.R., Loeb, G.E. and Munoz, D.P. Neck muscles in the rhesus monkey. II. Electromyographic patterns of activation underlying postures and movements. J. Neurophysiol, 86:1729-1749, 2001.

Loeb, G.E. Learning From the Spinal Cord. J. Physiol. (London) 533:111-117, 2001.

Loeb, G.E., Overcomplete Musculature or Underspecified Tasks? Motor Control, 4:81-83, 2000.

Prochazka, A., Wolpaw, J.R., Clarac, F., Loeb, G.E. and Rothwell, J.C. What do reflex and voluntary mean? Modern views on an ancient debate. Exp. Brain Res. 130:417-432, 2000.

Loeb, G.E. Asymmetry of hindlimb muscle activity and cutaneous reflexes after tendon transfers in kittens. J. Neurophysiol.82:3392-3405, 1999.

Loeb, G.E., Brown, I.E. and Cheng, E. A hierarchical foundation for models of sensorimotor control. Exp. Brain Res., 126:1-18, 1999.

Loeb, G.E., Brown, I.E. and Scott, S.H. Directional Motor Control. Trends in Neurosci. 19:137-138, 1996.

Thomson, D.B., Loeb, G.E. and Richmond, F.J.R. Effect of neck posture on patterns of feline neck muscles: Compensatory head movements during horizontal whole-body rotation. Exp. Brain Res.10:392-400, 1996.

Loeb, G.E. What can we expect from models of motor control? behav. & Brain Sci., 18*4(:767-768, 1995.

Scott, S.H. and Loeb, G.E. The computation of position sense from spindles in mono-and multiarticular muscles. J. Neurosci. 14:7529-7540, 1994.

Thomson, D.B., Loeb, G.E. and Richmond, F.J.R. Effect of neck posture on the activation of feline neck muscles during voluntary head turns. J. Neurophysiol. 72:2004-2014, 1994.

Abrahams, V.C., Kori, A., Loeb, G.E., Richmond, F.J.R., Rose, P.K. and Kierstead, S.A. Facial input to neck motoneurons: Trigemino-cervical reflexes in the conscious and anaesthetised cat. Exp. Brain Res. 97:23-30, 1993.

Blaszczyk, J. and Loeb, G.E. Why cats pace on the treadmill. Physiol. & Behav. 53:501-507, 1993.

Loeb, G.E. The distal hindlimb musculature of the cat: Interanimal variability of locomotor activity and cutaneous reflexes. Exp. Brain Res. 96:125-140, 1993.

Levine, W.S. and Loeb, G.E. Neural control of limb movement. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 12:38-46, 1992.

Richmond, F.J.R., Thomson, D.B. and Loeb, G.E. Electromyographic studies of neck muscles in the intact cat: I. Patterns of recruitment underlying posture and movement during natural behaviors. Exp. Brain Res. 88:41-58, 1992.

Richmond F.J.R. and Loeb, G.E. Electromyographic studies of neck muscles in the intact cat: II. Reflexes evoked by muscle-nerve stimulation. Exp. Brain Res. 88:59-66, 1992.

Loeb, G.E. Past the equilibrium point. Behav. & Brain Sci., 15:774-775, 1992.

Pratt, C.A., and Loeb, G.E. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. I. Patterns of activation across sartorius. Experimental Brain Research, 85:243-256, 1991.

Chanaud, C.M., Pratt, C.A. and Loeb, G.E. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. II. Mechanical and architectural heterogeneity within the biceps femoris. Experimental Brain Research, 85:257-270, 1991.

Pratt, C.A., Chanaud, C.M. and Loeb, G.E. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. IV. Intramuscular distribution of movement command signals and cutaneous reflexes in broad bifunctional thigh muscles. Experimental Brain Research, 85:281-299, 1991.

Chanaud, C.M., Pratt, C.A. and Loeb, G.E. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. V. The roles of histochemical fiber-type regionalization and mechanical heterogeneity in differential muscle activation. Experimental Brain Research, 85:300-313, 1991.

Engstrom, C.M., Loeb, G.E., Reid, J.G., Forrest, W.J. and Avruch, L. Morphometry of the human thigh muscles. A comparison between anatomic sections and computer tomographic and magnetic resonance images. J. Anat. 176:139-156, 1991.

Gordon, D.C., Loeb, G.E. and Richmond, F.J.R. Distribution of motoneurons supplying cat sartorius and tensor fasciae latae, demonstrated by retrograde multiple-labelling methods. J. Comp. Neurol. 304:357-373, 1991.

He, J., Levine, W.S. and Loeb, G.E. Feedback gains for correcting small perturbations to standing posture. IEEE Trans on Automatic Cointrol, 36:322-332, 1991.

Duenas, S.H., Loeb, G.E. and Marks, W.B. Monosynaptic and dorsal root reflexes during locomotion in normal and thalamic cats. J. Neurophysiol., 63:1467-1476, 1990.

Loeb, G.E., Levine, W.S. and He, J. Understanding sensorimotor feedback through optimal control. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 55: 791-803, 1990.

Loeb, G.E., He, Jiping and Levine, W.S. Spinal cord circuits: Are they mirrors of musculoskeletal mechanics? J. Motor Behavior, 21:473- 491, 1989.

Loeb, G.E. Strategies for the control of studies of voluntary movement with one degree of freedom. Behav. & Brain Sci. , 12:227, 1989.

Krarup, C., Loeb, G.E. and pezeshkpour, G.H. Conduction studies in peripheral cat nerve using implanted electrodes: III. The effects of prolonged constriction on the distal erve segment. Muscle and Nerve, 12:915-928, 1989.

Loeb, G.E. Neural control of locomotion. BioScience, 39(11):800-804, 1989.

Loeb, G.E. and Richmond, F.J.R. Motor partitioning: Epiphenomena masquerading as control theory. Behav. & Brain Sci., 12:660-661, 1989.

Loeb, G.E., He, J. and Levine, W.S. Spinal cord circuits: Are they mirrors and musculoskeletal mechanics? J. Motor Behavior, 21:473-491, 1989.

Krarup, C. and Loeb, G.E. Conduction studies in peripheral cat nerve using implanted electrodes: I. Methods and findings in controls. Muscle & Nerve, 11:922-932, 1988.

Krarup, C., Loeb, G.E., and Pezeshkpour, G.H. Conduction studies in peripheral cat nerve using implanted electrodes: II. The effects of prolonged constriction on regeneration of crused nerve fibers. Muscle & Nerve, 11:933-944, 1988.

Hoffer, J.A., Loeb, G.E., Marks, W.B., O’Donovan, M.J., Pratt, C.A. and Sugano, N. Cat hindlimb motoneurons during locomotion: I. Destination, axonal conduction velocity, and recruitment threshold. J. Neurophysiol. 57:510-529, 1987.

Hoffer, J.A., Sugano, N., Loeb, G.E., Marks, W.B., O’Donovan, M.J. and Pratt, C.A. Cat hindlimb motoneurons during locomotion: II. Normal activity patterns. J. Neurophysiol. 57:530-553, 1987.

Hoffer, J.A., Loeb, G.E., Sugano, N., Marks, W.B., O’Donovan, M.J. and Pratt, C.A. Cat hindlimb motoneurons during locomotion: III. Functional segregation in sartorius. J. Neurophysiol. 57:554-562, 1987.

Loeb, G.E., Hoffer, J.A., Sugano, N., Marks, W.B., O’Donovan, M.J. and Pratt, C.A. Activity patterns of identified alpha motoneurons to cat anterior thigh muscles during normal walking and flexor reflexes. In: Motor Control (Eds.) G.N. Gantchev, B. Dimitrov and P. Gatev, Plenum, New York, 1987, pp. 159-164.

Loeb, G.E., Marks, W.B. and Hoffer, J.A. Cat hindlimb motoneurons during locomotion: IV. Participation in cutaneous reflexes. J. Neurophysiol. 57:563-573, 1987.

Loeb, G.E., Yee, W.J., Pratt, C.A., Chanaud, C.M. and Richmond, F.J.R. Cross-correlation of EMG reveals widespread synchronization of motor units during some slow movements in intact cats. J. Neurosci. Meth. 21:239-249, 1987.

Loeb, G.E. Motor Control. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, G. Adelman, Ed., Birkhauser Boston, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., 1987, pp. 690-692.

Howell, J.N., Binder, M.D., Nichols, T.R. and Loeb, G.E. Muscle spindles golgi tendon organs and the neural control of skeletal muscle. J. Am. Osteopathic Assoc. 86:599-602, 1986.

Loeb, G.E. Spinal programs for locomotion. Prog. Brain Res. 64:273-287, 1986.

Abraham, L.D. and Loeb, G.E. The distal hindlimb musculature of the cat: Patterns of normal use. Exp. Brain Res. 58:580-593, 1985.

Abraham, L.D., Marks, W.B. and Loeb, G.E. The distal hindlimb musculature of the cat: Cutaneous reflexes during locomotion. Exp. Brain Res. 58:594-603, 1985.

Loeb, G.E., Hoffer, J.A. and Pratt, C.A. Activity of spindle afferents from cat anterior thigh muscles. I. Identification and patterns during normal locomotion. J. Neurophysiol. 54:549-564, 1985.

Loeb, G.E. and Hoffer, J.A. The activity of spindle afferents from cat anterior thigh muscles. II. Effects of fusimotor blockade. J. Neurophysiol. 54:565-577, 1985.

Loeb, G.E., Hoffer, J.A. and Marks, W.B. Activity of spindle afferents from cat anterior thigh muscles. III. Effects of external stimuli. J. Neurophysiol. 54:578-591, 1985.

Loeb, G.E. Motoneurone task groups – coping with kinematic heterogeneity. J. Exp. Biol. 115:137-146, 1985.

Loeb, G.E. and Marks, W.B. Optimal control principles for sensory transducers. In: Proc. Internat. Sympos.: The Muscle Spindle. (Eds.) I.A. Boyd and M.H. Gladden. MacMillan Ltd., London, 1985, pp. 409-415

Loeb, G.E. The Control and Responses of Mammalian Muscle Spindles During Normally Executed Motor Tasks. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 12:157-205, 1984.

Rindos, A.J., Loeb, G.E. and Levitan, H. Conduction velocity changes along lumbar primary afferents in cats. Exp. Neurol. 86:208-226, 1984.

Hoffer, J.A. and Loeb, G.E. A technique for reversible fusimotor blockade during chronic recording from spindle afferents in walking cats. Exp. Brain Res. Suppl. 7:272-279, 1983.

Loeb, G.E. Finding common ground between robotics and physiology. Trends Neurosci. 6:203-204, 1983.

O’Donovan, M.J., Hoffer, J.A. and Loeb, G.E. Physiological characterization of motor unit properties in intact cats. J. Neurosci. Meth. 7:137-149, 1983.

Hoffer, J.A., O’Donovan, M.J., Pratt, C.A. and Loeb, G.E. Discharge patterns in hindlimb motoneurons during normal cat locomotion. Science 213:466-468, 1981.

Loeb, G.E. and Hoffer, J.A. Muscle spindle function during normal and perturbed locomotion in cats. In: Muscle Receptors and Movement, (Ed.) A. Taylor and A. Prochazka, MacMillan, London, 1981, pp 219-228.

Loeb, G.E. Somatosensory unit input to the spinal cord during normal walking. Can. J. Physiol & Pharm. 59:627-635, 1981.

Hoffer, J.A., Loeb, G.E. and Pratt, C.A. Single unit conductioon velocities from averaged nerve cuff electrode records in freeely moving cats. J. Neurosci., Meth. 4:211-225, 1981.

Duysens, J., Loeb, G.E. and Weston, B.J. Crossed flexor reflex responses and their reversal in freely walking cats. Brain Res. 197:538-542, 1980.

Duysens, J. and Loeb, G.E. Modulation of ipsi- and contralateral reflex responses in unrestrained walking cats. J. Neurophysiol. 44:1024-1037, 1980.

Loeb, G.E. and Marks, W.B. Epistemology and heuristics in neural network research. Behav. & Brain Sci. 3:556-557, 1980.

Loeb, G.E. and Duysens, J. Activity patterns in individual hindlimb primary and secondary muscle spindle afferents during normal movements in unrestrained cats. J. Neurophysiol. 42:420-440, 1979.

Loeb, G.E., Bak, M.J. and Duysens, J. Long-term unit recording from somatosensory neurons in the spinal ganglia of the freely walking cat. Science 197:1192-1194, 1977.

Loeb, G.E. Decreased conduction velocity in the proximal projections of myelinated dorsal root ganglion cells in the cat. Brain Res. 103:381-385, 1976.

Loeb, G.E. Ventral root projections of myelinated dorsal root ganglion cells in the cat. Brain Res. 106:159-165, 1976.

Marks, W.B. and Loeb, G.A. Action currents, internodal potentials, and extracellular records of myelinated mammalian nerve fibers derived from node potentials. Biophys. J., 16:655-668, 1976.