Dr. Loeb’s Publications

Huang, X., Denprasert, P.M., Zhou, L., Vest, A.N., Kohan, S. and Loeb, G.E. Accelerated life-test methods and results for implantable electronic devices with adhesive encapsulation, Biomed. Microdevices 19:46, DOI 10.1007/s10544-017-0189-9, 2017.

Tsianos, G.A. and Loeb, G.E. Muscle and limb mechanics Comprehensive Physiology, 7:429-462, 2017.

Huang, X., Zheng, K., Kohan, S., Denprasert, P.M., Liao, L., Loeb, G.E.  Neurostimulation strategy for stress urinary incontinence, DOI: 10.1109/TNSRE.2017.2679077, 2017.

Jalaleddini, K., Niu, C., Chakravarthi Raja, S., Sohn, W.J., Loeb, G.E., Sanger, T. and Valero-Cuevas, F. Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, Part II: The role of fusimotor drive J. Neural Engineering dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2252/aa59bd, 2017.

Zhou, L., Bar-Cohen, Y., Peck, R.A., Chirikian, G.V., Harwin, B., Chmait, R.H., Pruetz, J.D., Silka, M.J. and Loeb, G.E. Analytical modeling for computing lead stress in a novel epicardial micropacemaker Cardiovascular Engineering & Technology DOI: 10.1007/s13239-017-0292-3, 2017.

Vest, A.N., Zhou, L., Huang, X., Norekyan, V., Bar-Cohen, Y., Chmait, R.H. and Loeb, G.E. Design and testing of a transcutaneous RF recharging system for a fetal micropacemaker IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits and Systems TBioCAS-2016-Mar-0062-REG.R2, 2016.

Vest, A.N., Zhou, L., Bar-Cohen, Y. and Loeb, G.E. A novel method to estimate safety factor of capture by a fetal micropacemaker Physiological Measurement doi:10.1088/0967-3334/37/7/1172, 2016.

Zhou, L., Vest, A.N., Peck, R.A., Sredl, J.P., Huang, X., Bar-Cohen, Y., Silka, M.J., Pruetz, J.D., Chmait, R.H. and Loeb, G.E. Minimally invasive implantable fetal micropacemaker: mechanical testing and technical refinements Med Biol Eng Comput 1-12. DOI 10.1007/s11517-016-1470-4, 2016.

Bar-Cohen, Y., Loeb, G.E., Pruetz, J.D., Silka, M.J., Guerra, C., Vest, A.N., Zhou, L. and Chmait, R. Preclinical testing and optimization of a novel fetal micropacemaker. Heart Rhythm, vol 12, No 7, 2015.

Loeb, G.E. and Tsianos, G.A. Major remaining gaps in models of sensorimotor systems Front. Comput. Neurosci. dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2015.00070, 2015.

Loeb, G.E. and Mileusnic, M. Proprioceptors and models of transduction Scholarpedia, 10(5):12390, 2015.

Loeb, G.E. and Davoodi, R. Musculoskeletal mechanics and modeling Scholarpedia, 2015.

Sinha, U.K., Villegas, B., Kuo, C., Richmond, F.J., Masood, R., Nelson, N.I. and Loeb, G.E. Safety of Microstimulator During Radiation Therapy – A Preliminary Study on Head and Neck Cancer Patients Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy, 5:197, (2014) doi: 10.4172/2155-9619.1000197, 2014.

Loeb, G.E. and Fishel, J.A. Bayesian Action & Perception: Representing the World in the Brain Frontiers in Neuroscience 8:341, doi: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00341, 2014.

Tsianos, G.A., Goodner J. and Loeb, G.E. Useful properties of spinal circuits for learning and performing planar reaches J. Neural Eng. 11 (2014) 056006 (21pp), doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/11/5/056006, 2014.

Loeb, G.E. Spinal Cord, Integrated (Non CPG) Models of Encyc Comp Neurosci doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-7320-6_648-1, 2014.

Wettels, N., Fishel, J.A. and Loeb, G.E. Multimodal Tactile Sensor The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development. Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics (STAR) series, Balasubramanian, R. and Santos, V.J., Eds., Springer, Heidelberg., doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-03017-3_19, 2014.

Tsianos, G.A. and Loeb, G.E. Muscle Physiology and Modeling www.scholarpedia.org/article/Muscle Physiology and Modeling Scholarpedia, 8(10):12388 doi:10.4249, 2013.

Kaliki, R.R., Davoodi, R. and Loeb, G.E. Evaluation of a noninvasive command scheme for upper-limb prostheses in a virtual reality reach and grasp task. IEEE Trans. BME 60:792-802, 2013.

De Rugy, A., Loeb, G.E. and Carroll, T.J. Are muscle synergies useful for neural control? Front. Comput. Neurosci., DOI: 10.3389, 2013.

Loeb, G.E., Zhou, L., Zheng, K., Nicholson, A., Peck, R.A., Krishnan, A., Silka, M., Pruetz, J., Chmait, R. and Bar-Cohen, Y. Design and testing of a percutaneously implantable fetal pacemaker. Annals Biomed. Engng. 41:17-27, DOI: 10.1007/s10439-012-0631-3, 2013.

Hauschild, M., Mulliken, G.H., Fineman, I., Loeb, G.E., and Anderson, R.A. Cognitive signals for brain-machine interfaces in posterior parietal cortex include continuous 3D trajectory commands. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(42): 17075-17080, 2012.

De Rugy, A., Loeb, G.E., and Carroll, T.J. Virtual biomechanics: a new method for online reconstruction of force from EMG recordings. J. Neurophysiol., 108(12):3333-3341, 2012.

Avraham, G., Nisky, I., Fernandes, H., Acuna, D., Kording, K., Loeb, G.E. and Karniel, A. Towards perceiving robots as humans: Three handshake models face the Turing-like handshake test. IEEE Trans. Haptics, 5:196-207, 2012.

Fishel, J.A. and Loeb, G.E. Bayesian exploration for intelligent identification of textures. Frontiers in Neurorobotics, 6:4(doi:10:338/fnbot.2012.00004). 2012.

Su, Z., Fishel, J.A., Yamamoto, T. and Loeb, G.E. Use of tactile feedback to control exploratory movements to characterize object compliance. Frontier in Neurorobotics, 6:7 (doi: 10.3389/fnbot.2012.00007), 2012.

Li, Y., Smith, L.H., Hargrove, L.J., Weber, D.J., and Loeb, G.E. Sparse Optimal Motor Estimation (SOME) for Extracting Commands for Prosthetic Limbs. IEEE Trans. Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 10.1109TNSRE.2012.2218286, 2012.

Roy, D., Wettels, N., and Loeb, G.E. Elastomeric Skin Selection for a Fluid-Filled Artificial Fingertip. Journal of Applied Polymer Science DOI:10.1002/APP.38030, 2012.

Li, Y., Levine, W.S., and Loeb, G.E., A Two-Joint Human Posture Control Model With Realistic Neural Delays. IEEE Tran. Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering 20:738-748, 2012.

Loeb, G.E., Optimal isn’t good enough. Biological Cybernetics, DOI 10.1007/s00422-012-0514-6, 2012.

De Rugy, A., Loeb, G.E., and Carroll, T.J., Muscle coordination is habitual rather than optimal. J. Neuroscience 32:7384-7391, 2012.

Davoodi, R. and Loeb, G.E., Real-time animation software for customized training to use motor prosthetic systems. IEEE Trans. Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 20:134-142, 2012.

Tsianos, G.A., Rustin, C. and Loeb, G.E. Mammalian muscle model for predicting force and energetics during physiological behaviors. IEEE Trans. Neural Systems & Rehab. Engng. 2:117-133, 2012.

Davoodi, R. and Loeb, G.E. MSMS Software for VR Simulations of Neural Prostheses and Patient Training and Rehabilitation. Stud. Health Technol. Inform., vol. 163, pp. 156-162, 2011.
Loeb, G.E. Neuroprosthetic Interfaces – the Reality Behind Bionics and Cyborgs. Human Nature and Self-Design, eds. Schleidgen, Jungert, Bauer & Sandow, mentis Verlag GmbH, Paderborn, Germany, 2011.

Tsianos, G.A., Raphael, G. and Loeb, G.E. Modeling the potentiality of spinal-like circuitry for stabilization of a planar arm system. Prog. Brain Res. 194:129-144, 2011.

Wettels, N. and Loeb, G.E. Haptic feature extraction from a biomimetic tactile sensor: force, contact location and curvature. IEEE-ROBIO, Phuket, Thailand, Dec. 7-11, 2011. Awarded C.M. Ho Best Paper in Biomimetics.

Kaplan H.M., Baker, L.L., Rubayi, S. and Loeb, G.E. Preventing ischial pressure ulcers: III. Clinical pilot study of chronic neuromuscular electrical stimulation.Applied Bionics & Biomechanics 8:345-359, 2011.

Kaplan, H.M., Baker, L.L., Davoodi, R., Wong, N.T. and Loeb, G.E.Preventing ischial pressure ulcers: II. Biomechanics. Applied Bionics & Biomechanics 8:333-343, 2011.

Kaplan, H.M., and Loeb, G.E. Preventing ischial pressure ulcers: I. Review of neuromuscular electrical stimulation.
Applied Bionics & Biomechanics 8:323-331, 2011.

Loeb, G.E., Tsianos, G.A., Fishel, J.A., Wettels, N. and Schaal, S. Understanding haptics by evolving mechatronic systems. Prog. Brain Res. 192:129-144, 2011.

Davoodi, R. and Loeb, G.E., Development of a physics-based target shooting game to train amputee users of multijoint upper limb prostheses. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. (in press), 2011.

Raphael, G., Tsianos, G.A. and Loeb, G.E. Spinal-Like Regulator Facilitates Control of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Wrist. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30(28):9431-9444 2010.

Kaplan, H.M. and Loeb, G.E. Design and Fabrication of an Injection Tool for Neuromuscular Microstimulators. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 37(9):1858-1870, 2009.

Mileusnic, M.P., and Loeb, G.E. Force estimation from ensembles of Golgi tendon organs. J. Neural Eng., 6:1-15, 2009.

Wettels, N., Santos, V.J., Johansson, R.S. and Loeb, G.E. Biomimetic Tactile Sensor Array. Advanced Robotics, 22(8):829-849, 2008.

Kaliki, R.R., Davoodi, R. and Loeb, G.E. Prediction of Distal Arm Posture in 3-D Space From Shoulder Movements for Control of Upper Limb Prostheses. Proceedings of the IEEE, 96(7):1217-1225, 2008.

Cheng, E.J. and Loeb, G.E. On the use of musculoskeletal models to interpret motor control strategies from performance data. Journal Neural Engineering 5:232-253, 2008.

Song, D., Raphael, G., Lan, N. and Loeb, G.E. Computationally Efficient Models of Neuromuscular Recruitment and Mechanics. Journal of Neural Engineering 5:175-184, 2008.

Liao, K-C, Hogen-Esch, T., Richmond, F.J., Marcu, L.R., Clifton, W. and Loeb, G.E. Percutaneous Fiber-optic Sensor for Chronic Glucose Monitoring in vivo. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 23:1458-1465, 2008.

Song, D., Lan, N., Loeb, G.E. and Gordon, J. Model-Based Integration for Multi-Joint Control: Development of a Virtual Arm Model, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 36(6):1033-1048, 2008.

Zou, Q., Tan, W., Kim, E.S., Loeb, G.E. Single- and Triaxis Piezoelectric-Bimorph Accelerometers. J. of Microelectromechanical Systems, 17(1):45-57, 2008.

Loeb, G.E. and Wills, J. General-Purpose Technology for a General-Purpose Nervous System. ISCAS Conference 2008.

Popovic, D., Baker, L.L. and Loeb, G.E. Recruitment and comfort of BION implanted electrical stimulation: Implications for FES applications. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng, 15(4):577-586, 2007.

Loeb, G.E., Peck, R.A., Singh, J., Kim, Y., Deshpande, S., Baker, L.L. and Bryant, J.T. Mechanical Loading of Rigid Intramuscular Implants. Biomedical Microdevices, 9(6):901-910, 2007.

Hauschild, M., Davoodi, R. and Loeb, G.E. A Virtual Reality Environment for Designing and Fitting Neural Prosthetic Limbs. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 15(1):9-15, 2007.

Davoodi, R., Urata, C., Hauschild, M., Khachani, M., Loeb, G.E. Model-Based Development of Neural prostheses for Movement. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 54(11):1909-1918, 2007.

Wettels, N., Popovic, D., Santos, V.J., Johannson, R.S., Loeb, G.E. Biomimetic tactile sensor for control of grip. International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics 2007, Nordweijk an Zee, the Netherlands, June 12-15, 2007.

Wettels, N., Popovic, D., Loeb, G.E. Biomimetic tactile sensor. Proceedings of BioMed2007, 2nd Frontiers in Biomedical Devices Conference, Irvine, California, June 7-8, 2007.

Tan, W. and Loeb, G.E. Feasibility of prosthetic posture sensing via injectable electronic modules. IEEE Trans. Neural Systems & Rehab. Engng., 15(2):295-309, 2007.

Sachs, N.A. and Loeb, G.E. Development of a BIONic muscle spindle for prosthetic proprioception. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 54(6):1031-1041, 2007.

Rodriguez, N., Weissberg, J., and Loeb, G.E. Flexible communication and control protocol for injectable nuromuscular interfaces. IEEE Transcations on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, 1(1):19-27, March 2007.

Loeb, G.E., Singh, J., Allen, J.G., Raphael, G., Buckley, P., Blanco, C., Richmond, F.J.R. and Salter, G.D.V. A Document Navigation System for the Paperwork Jungle, MD&DI, p. 110-119, August 2006, http://www.devicelink.com/mddi/archive/06/08/008.html

Loeb,G.E., Richmond,F.J. and Baker,L.L. The BION devices: injectable interfaces with peripheral nerves and muscles. Neurosurg. Focus, 20(5):E2, 2006.

Mileusnic,M.P., Brown,I.E., Lan,N. and Loeb,G.E. Mathematical models of proprioceptors: I. Control and transduction in the muscle spindle. J. Neurophysiol. 96:1772-1788, 2006.

Mileusnic,M.P. and Loeb,G.E. Mathematical models of proprioceptors: II. Structure and function of the Golgi tendon organ. J Neurophysiol. 96: 1789-1802, 2006.

Wolpaw,J.R., Loeb,G.E., Allison,B.Z., Donchin,E., do Nascimento,O.F., Heetderks,W.J., Nijboer,F., Shain,W.G. and Turner,J.N. BCI Meeting 2005–Workshop on signals and recording methods. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng, 14(2):138-41, 2006.

Loeb, G.E. We made the deaf hear. Now what? Toward Replacement Parts for the Brain: Implantable Biomimetic Electronics as Neural Prostheses, Chapter 1, p. 3-13, 2005.Liao,K.C., Hogen-Esch,T.E., Richmond,F.J., Marcu,L. and Loeb,G.E. Design and fabrication of disposable percutaneous chemical sensors. Proceedings SPIE, 5691:129-145, 2005.

Loeb, G.E. Are cochlear implant patients suffering from perceptual dissonance? Ear & Hearing, 26(5): 435-450, 2005.

Loeb,G.E. and Davoodi,R. The functional reanimation of paralyzed limbs. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag., 24(5):45-51, 2005.

Loeb, G.E. Galvani’s Delayed Legacy: Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation. Expert Review of Medical Devices, 2(4):379-381, July, 2005.

Dupont, A.C., Bagg, S.D., Creasy, J.L., Romano, C. Romano, D., Richmond, F.J.R. and Loeb, G.E. First clinical experience with BION® implants for therapeutic electrical stimulation. Neuromodulation, 7:38-47, 2004.

Liao,K.C., Hogen-Esch,T.E., Richmond,F.J., Marcu,L. and Loeb,G.E. Sencil™ Project: Development of a percutaneous optical biosensor. Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, San Francisco, 2082-2085, 2004.

Weber D.J., Stein R.B., Chan K.M., Loeb G.E., Richmond F.J., Rolf R., James K., Chong S.L., Thompson A.K., and Misiaszek J. Functional electrical stimulation using microstimulators to correct foot drop: a case study. Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology, 82:784-92, 2004.

Davoodi R, Brown, I.E. and Loeb, G.E. Advanced modeling environment for developing and testing FES control systems. Med Engng& Physics, 25:3-9, 2003.

Dupont Salter, A.-C., Richmond, F.J.R. and Loeb, G.E. Effects of muscle immobilization at different lengths on tetrodotoxin-induced disuse atrophy. IEEE Trans. Neural Sys. Rehab. Engng, 11:209-217, 2003.

Dupont Salter, A.-C., Richmond, F.J.R. and Loeb, G.E. Prevention of muscle disuse atrophy by low-frequency electrical stimulation in rats. IEEE Trans. Neural Sys. Rehab. Engng, 11:218-226, 2003.

Loeb, G.E. and Richmond, F.J.R. Making Design Controls Useful for Research and Development. Medical Device and Diagnostic Industry, 25(4):63-68, April, 2003.

Davoodi, R. and Loeb, G.E. A Software Tool for Faster Development of Complex Models of Musculoskeletal Systems and Sensorimotor Controllers in Simulink. J. Appl. Biomech., 18:357-365, 2002.

Loeb, G.E., Brown, I.E., Lan, N. and Davoodi, R. The importance of biomechanics. Adv. Exper. Med. Biol., 508: 481-487, 2002.

Loeb, G.E. and Richmond, F.J.R. BION implants for therapeutic and functional electrical stimulation. Neural Prostheses for Restoration of Sensory and Motor Function, Chapter 3, p. 75-99, 2001.

Corneil, B.D., Olivier, E., Richmond, F.J.R., Loeb, G.E. and Munoz, D.P. Neck muscles in the rhesus monkey. II. Electromyographic patterns of activation underlying postures and movements. J. Neurophysiol, 86:1729-1749, 2001.

Dupont, A.-C., Sauerbrei, E. E., Fenton, P. V., Shragge, P. C., Loeb, G. E. and Richmond, F. J. R. Real-Time Sonography to Estimate Muscle Thickness: Comparison with MRI and CT. Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, 23(4):230-236, 2001.

Loeb, G. E., Peck, R. A., Moore, W. H. and Hood, K. BION™ system for distributed neural prosthetic interfaces. Medical Engineering and Physics, 23:9-18, 2001.

Loeb, G.E. Learning From the Spinal Cord. J. Physiol. (London), 533:111-117, 2001.

Brown, I.E. and Loeb, G.E. A reductionist approach to creating and using neuromusculoskeletal models. Chapter in: Biomechanics and Neuro-Control of Posture and Movement, (Eds.) J. Winters and P. Crago, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2000, pp 148-163.

Brown, I.E. and Loeb, G.E. Measured and modeled properties of mammalian skeletal muscle: III. The effects of stimulus frequency on stretch-induced force enhancement and shortening-induced force depression. J. Muscle Res. Cell Motility, 21:21-31, 2000.

Brown, I.E. and Loeb, G.E. Measured and modeled properties of mammalian skeletal muscle: IV. The dynamics of activation and deactivation. J. Muscle Res. Cell Motility, 21:33-47, 2000.

Cheng, E., Brown, I.E. and Loeb, G.E. Virtual Muscle: A computational approach to understanding the effects of muscle properties on motor control. J. Neurosci. Methods, 101:117-130, 2000.

Loeb, G.E., Overcomplete Musculature or Underspecified Tasks? Motor Control, 4:81-83, 2000.

Prochazka, A., Wolpaw, J.R., Clarac, F., Loeb, G.E. and Rothwell, J.C. What do reflex and voluntary mean? Modern views on an ancient debate. Exp. Brain Res., 130:417-432, 2000.

Singh, K., Richmond, F.J.R. and Loeb, G.E. Recruitment properties of intramuscular and nerve-trunk stimulating electrodes. IEEE-Trans. Rehab. Engng., 8(3):276-285, 2000.

Brown, I.E. and Loeb, G.E. Measured and modeled properties of mammalian skeletal muscle: I. The effects of post-activation potentiation on the time-course and velocity dependencies of force production. J. Muscle Res. Cell Motility, 20:443-456, 1999.

Brown, I.E., Cheng, E.J. and Loeb, G.E. Measured and modeled properties of mammalian skeletal muscle: II. The effects of stimulus frequency on force-length and force-velocity relationships. J. Muscle Res. Cell Motility, 20:627-643, 1999.

Loeb, G.E. and Richmond, F.J.R. FES or TES: How to start an industry? Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference of the International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society, Sendai, Japan, 169-172, 1999.

Loeb, G.E. Asymmetry of hindlimb muscle activity and cutaneous reflexes after tendon transfers in kittens. J. Neurophysiol., 82:3392-3405, 1999.

Loeb, G.E, Brown, I.E and Cheng, E. A hierarchical foundation for models of sensorimotor control. Exp. Brain Res., 126: 1-18, 1999.

Brown, I.E., Kim, D.H. and Loeb, G.E. The effect of sarcomere length on triad location in intact feline caudofemoralis muscle fibers. J. Muscle Res. Cell Motility, 19:473-477, 1998.

Brown, I.E., Satoda, T., Richmond, F.J.R. and Loeb, G.E. Feline caudofemoralis muscle: Muscle fiber properties, architecture and motor innervation. Exp. Brain Res., 121:76-91, 1998.

Brown, I.E. and Loeb, G.E. Post-activation potentiation – a clue for simplifying models of muscle dynamics. Amer. Zool., 38:743-754, 1998.

Cameron, T., Richmond, F.J.R. and Loeb, G.E. Effects of regional stimulation using a miniature stimulator implanted in feline posterior biceps femoris. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Engng., 45:1036-1043, 1998.

Cameron, T., Liinamaa, T.L., Loeb, G.E. and Richmond, F.J.R. Long-term biocompatibility of a miniature stimulator implanted in feline hind limb muscles. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Engng., 45:1024-1035, 1998.

Wilson, B.S., Rebscher, S., Zeng, F.-G., Shannon, R.V., Loeb, G.E. and Lawson, D.T. Design for an inexpensive but effective cochlear implant. Otolaryngol.-Head & Neck Surg., 118:235-241, 1998.

Cameron, T., Loeb, G.E., Peck, R.A., Schulman, J.H., Strojnik, P. and Troyk, P.R. Micromodular implants to provide electrical stimulation of paralyzed muscles and limbs. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Engng., 44:781-790, 1997.

Loeb, G.E. Speech-processing strategies designed for children. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 117(3): 170-173, 1997.

Brown, I.E., Scott, S.H. and Loeb, G.E. Mechanics of feline soleus: II. Design and validation of a mathematical model. J. Muscle Research and Cell Motility, 17:221-233, 1996.

Brown, I.E., Liinamaa, T.L. and Loeb, G.E. Relationships between range of motion, Lo and passive force in five strap-like muscles of the feline hindlimb. J. Morph., 230:69-77, 1996.

Loeb, G.E. and Peck, R.A. Cuff electrodes for chronic stimulation and recording of peripheral nerve activity. J. Neurosci. Meth., 64:95-103, 1996.

Loeb, G.E., Brown, I.E. and Scott, S.H. Directional Motor Control. Trends in Neurosci., 19:137-138, 1996.

Scott, S.H., Brown, I.E. and Loeb, G.E. Mechanics of feline soleus: I. Effect of fascicle length and velocity on force output. J. Muscle Research and Cell Motility, 17:205-218, 1996.

Thomson, D.B., Loeb, G.E. and Richmond, F.J.R. Effect of neck posture on patterns of feline neck muscles: Compensatory head movements during horizontal whole-body rotation. Exp. Brain Res., 10:392-400, 1996.

Kessler, D.K., Loeb, G.E., Barker, M.S. Distribution of speech recognition results with the Clarion cochlear prosthesis. Otol., Rhinol. & Laryngol. Suppl., 166:283-285, 1995.

Loeb, G.E., Peck, R.A. and Smith, D.W. Microminiature molding techniques for cochlear electrode arrays. J. Neurosci. Meth., 63:85-92, 1995.

Loeb, G.E. and Kessler, D.K. Speech recognition performance over time with the Clarion cochlear prosthesis. Otol., Rhinol. & Laryngol. Suppl., 166:290-292, 1995.

Loeb, G.E., Peck, R.A. and Martyniuk, J. Toward the ultimate metal microelectrode. J. Neurosci. Meth., 63:175-183, 1995.

Loeb, G.E. What can we expect from models of motor control? Behav. & Brain Sci., 18(4):767-768, 1995.

Ruddy, H.A. and Loeb, G.E. The influence of materials and geometry on fields produced by cochlear electrode arrays. Med. & Biol. Engng. & Comput., 33:793-801, 1995.

Scott, S.H. and Loeb, G.E. Mechanical properties of the aponeurosis and tendon of the cat soleus muscle during whole-muscle isometric contractions. J. Morph., 224:73-86, 1995.

Martyniuk, J., Corbett, S., and Loeb, G.E. Innovative Laser Systems for Ultraviolet Laser-Based Micromachining. Med. Dev. & Diag. Industry, pp. 110-121, October, 1994.

Scott, S.H. and Loeb, G.E. The computation of position sense from spindles in mono-and multiarticular muscles. J. Neurosci., 14:7529-7540, 1994.

Thomson, D.B., Loeb, G.E. and Richmond, F.J.R. Effect of neck posture on the activation of feline neck muscles during voluntary head turns. J. Neurophysiol., 72:2004-2014, 1994.

Abrahams, V.C., Kori, A., Loeb, G.E., Richmond, F.J.R., Rose, P.K. and Kierstead, S.A. Facial input to neck motoneurons: Trigemino-cervical reflexes in the conscious and anaesthetised cat. Exp. Brain Res., 97:23-30, 1993.

Blaszczyk, J. and Loeb, G.E. Why cats pace on the treadmill. Physiol. & Behav., 53:501-507, 1993.

Loeb, G.E. The distal hindlimb musculature of the cat: Interanimal variability of locomotor activity and cutaneous reflexes. Exp. Brain Res., 96:125-140, 1993.

Scott, S.H., Engstrom C.M. and Loeb, G.E. Morphometry of human thigh muscles. Determination of fascicle architecture from magnetic resonance imaging. J. Anat., 182:249-257, 1993.

Young, R.P., Scott, S.H. and Loeb, G.E. The distal hindlimb musculature of the cat: Multiaxis moment arms at the ankle joint. Exp. Brain Res., 96:141-151, 1993.

Heckman, C.J., Weytjens, J.L.F. and Loeb, G.E. Effect of velocity and mechanical history on the forces of motor units in the cat medial gastrocnemius muscle. J. Neurophysiol., 68:1503-1515, 1992.

Levine, W.S. and Loeb, G.E. Neural control of limb movement. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 12:38-46, 1992.

Loeb, G.E. Past the equilibrium point. Behav. & Brain Sci., 15:774-775, 1992.

Richmond, F.J.R., Thomson, D.B. and Loeb, G.E. Electromyographic studies of neck muscles in the intact cat: I. Patterns of recruitment underlying posture and movement during natural behaviors. Exp. Brain Res., 88:41-58, 1992.

Richmond F.J.R. and Loeb, G.E. Electromyographic studies of neck muscles in the intact cat: II. Reflexes evoked by muscle-nerve stimulation. Exp. Brain Res., 88:59-66, 1992.

Scott, S.H., Thomson, D.B., Richmond, F.J.R. and Loeb, G.E. Neuromuscular organization of feline anterior sartorius: II. Intramuscular length changes and complex length-tension relationships during stimulation of individual nerve branches. J. Morph., 213:171-183, 1992.

Young, R.P., Scott, S.H. and Loeb, G.E. An intrinsic mechanism to stabilize posture – joint-angle-dependent moment arms of the feline ankle muscles. Neurosci. Lett., 145:137-140, 1992.

Chanaud, C.M., Pratt, C.A. and Loeb, G.E. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. II. Mechanical and architectural heterogeneity within the biceps femoris. Experimental Brain Research, 85:257-270, 1991.

Chanaud, C.M., Pratt, C.A. and Loeb, G.E. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. V. The roles of histochemical fiber-type regionalization and mechanical heterogeneity in differential muscle activation. Experimental Brain Research, 85:300-313, 1991.

DeFoa, J.L. and Loeb, G.E. Issues in cochlear prosthetics: An International survey of opinions. Inter. J. Tech. Assessment in Health Care, 7:403-410, 1991.

Engstrom, C.M., Loeb, G.E., Reid, J.G., Forrest, W.J. and Avruch, L. Morphometry of the human thigh muscles. A comparison between anatomic sections and computer tomographic and magnetic resonance images. J. Anat., 176:139-156, 1991.

Gordon, D.C., Loeb, G.E. and Richmond, F.J.R. Distribution of motoneurons supplying cat sartorius and tensor fasciae latae, demonstrated by retrograde multiple-labelling methods. J. Comp. Neurol., 304:357-373, 1991.

He, Jiping, Levine, W.S. and Loeb, G.E. Feedback gains for correcting small perturbations to standing posture. IEEE Trans on Automatic Control, 36:322-332, 1991.

Loeb, G.E., Zamin, C.J., Schulman, J.H. and Troyk, P.R. Injectable microstimulator for functional electrical stimulation. Med. & Biol. Engng. and Comput., 29:NS13-NS19, 1991.

Pratt, C.A., and Loeb, G.E. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. I. Patterns of activation across sartorius. Experimental Brain Research, 85:243-256, 1991.

Pratt, C.A., Chanaud, C.M. and Loeb, G.E. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. IV. Intramuscular distribution of movement command signals and cutaneous reflexes in broad bifunctional thigh muscles. Experimental Brain Research, 85:281-299, 1991.

Bak, M., Girvin, J.P., Hambrecht, F.T., Kufta, C.V., Loeb, G.E. and Schmidt, E.M. Visual sensations produced by intracortical microstimulation of the human occipital cortex. Med. & Biol. Engng and Comput., 28:257-259, 1990.

Duenas, S.H., Loeb, G.E. and Marks, W.B. Monosynaptic and dorsal root reflexes during locomotion in normal and thalamic cats. J. Neurophysiol., 63:1467-1476, 1990.

Loeb, G.E. Cochlear Prosthetics. Annu. Rev. Neurosci., 13:357-71, 1990.

Loeb, G.E., Levine, W.S. and He, J. Understanding sensorimotor feedback through optimal control. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 55: 791-803, 1990.

Gans, C., Loeb, G.E. and de Vree, F. Architecture and consequent physiological properties of the semitendinosus muscle in domestic goats. J. Morphology, 199:287-297, 1989.

Krarup, C., Loeb, G.E. and Pezeshkpour, G.H. Conduction studies in peripheral cat nerve using implanted electrodes: III. The effects of prolonged constriction on the distal nerve segment. Muscle and Nerve, 12:915-928, 1989.

Loeb, G.E. Neural control of locomotion. BioScience, 39(11):800-804, 1989.

Loeb, G.E. and Richmond, F.J.R. Motor partitioning: Epiphenomena masquerading as control theory. Behav. & Brain Sci., 12:660-661, 1989.

Loeb, G.E., He, Jiping and Levine, W.S. Spinal cord circuits: Are they mirrors of musculoskeletal mechanics? J. Motor Behavior, 21:473- 491, 1989.

Loeb, G.E. Strategies for the control of studies of voluntary movement with one degree of freedom. Behav. & Brain Sci. , 12:227, 1989.

Krarup, C. and Loeb, G.E. Conduction studies in peripheral cat nerve using implanted electrodes: I. Methods and findings in controls. Muscle & Nerve, 11:922-932, 1988.

Krarup, C., Loeb, G.E., and Pezeshkpour, G.H. Conduction studies in peripheral cat nerve using implanted electrodes: II. The effects of prolonged constriction on regeneration of crushed nerve fibers. Muscle & Nerve, 11:933-944, 1988.

Chanaud, C.M., Pratt, C.A. and Loeb, G.E. A multiple-contact EMG recording array for mapping single muscle unit territories. J. Neurosci. Meth., 21:105-112, 1987.

Hoffer, J.A., Loeb, G.E., Marks, W.B., O’Donovan, M.J., Pratt, C.A. and Sugano, N. Cat hindlimb motoneurons during locomotion: I. Destination, axonal conduction velocity, and recruitment threshold. J. Neurophysiol., 57:510-529, 1987.

Hoffer, J.A., Sugano, N., Loeb, G.E., Marks, W.B., O’Donovan, M.J. and Pratt, C.A. Cat hindlimb motoneurons during locomotion: II. Normal activity patterns. J. Neurophysiol., 57:530-553, 1987.

Hoffer, J.A., Loeb, G.E., Sugano, N., Marks, W.B., O’Donovan, M.J. and Pratt, C.A. Cat hindlimb motoneurons during locomotion: III. Functional segregation in sartorius. J. Neurophysiol., 57:554-562, 1987.

Loeb, G.E., Hoffer, J.A., Sugano, N., Marks, W.B., O’Donovan, M.J. and Pratt, C.A. Activity patterns of identified alpha motoneurons to cat anterior thigh muscles during normal walking and flexor reflexes. In: Motor Control (Eds.) G.N. Gantchev, B. Dimitrov and P. Gatev, Plenum, New York, 1987, pp. 159-164.

Loeb, G.E. Auditory Prosthesis. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, G. Adelman, Ed., Birkhauser Boston, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., 1987, pp. 88-89.

Loeb, G.E., Marks, W.B. and Hoffer, J.A. Cat hindlimb motoneurons during locomotion: IV. Participation in cutaneous reflexes. J. Neurophysiol., 57:563-573, 1987.

Loeb, G.E., Yee, W.J., Pratt, C.A., Chanaud, C.M. and Richmond, F.J.R. Cross-correlation of EMG reveals widespread synchronization of motor units during some slow movements in intact cats. J. Neurosci. Meth., 21:239-249, 1987.

Loeb, G.E., Pratt, C.A., Chanaud, C.M. and Richmond, F.J.R. Distribution and innervation of short, interdigitated muscle fibers in parallel-fibered muscles of the cat hindlimb. J. Morph., 191:1-15, 1987.

Loeb, G.E. Motor Control. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, G. Adelman, Ed., Birkhauser Boston, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., 1987, pp. 690-692.

Loeb, G.E. Restoring motor function through electrical stimulation. MS Quart. Rep., 6:47-50, 1987.

Howell, J.N., Binder, M.D., Nichols, T.R. and Loeb, G.E. Muscle spindles golgi tendon organs and the neural control of skeletal muscle. J. Am. Osteopathic Assoc., 86:599-602, 1986.

Loeb, G.E. Neural control and prosthetics: Interfaces with the nervous system. Keynote address, J. Am. Osteopathic Assoc., 86:594-5, 1986.

Loeb, G.E. Spinal programs for locomotion. Prog. Brain Res., 64:273-287, 1986.

Abraham, L.D. and Loeb, G.E. The distal hindlimb musculature of the cat: Patterns of normal use. Exp. Brain Res., 58:580-593, 1985.

Abraham, L.D., Marks, W.B. and Loeb, G.E. The distal hindlimb musculature of the cat: Cutaneous reflexes during locomotion. Exp. Brain Res., 58:594-603, 1985.

Loeb, G.E., Hoffer, J.A. and Pratt, C.A. Activity of spindle afferents from cat anterior thigh muscles. I. Identification and patterns during normal locomotion. J. Neurophysiol., 54:549-564, 1985.

Loeb, G.E. and Hoffer, J.A. The activity of spindle afferents from cat anterior thigh muscles. II. Effects of fusimotor blockade. J. Neurophysiol., 54:565-577, 1985.

Loeb, G.E., Hoffer, J.A. and Marks, W.B. Activity of spindle afferents from cat anterior thigh muscles. III. Effects of external stimuli. J. Neurophysiol., 54:578-591, 1985.

Loeb, G.E. The functional replacement of the ear. Scientific American, 252:104-111, 1985.

Loeb, G.E. Motoneurone task groups: coping with kinematic heterogeneity. J. Exp. Biol., 115:137-146, 1985.

Loeb, G.E. and Marks, W.B. Optimal control principles for sensory transducers. In: Proc. Internat. Sympos.: The Muscle Spindle. (Eds.) I.A. Boyd and M.H. Gladden. MacMillan Ltd., London, 1985, pp. 409-415.

Loeb, G.E. Single and multichannel cochlear prostheses: Rationale, strategies, and potential. In: Cochlear Implants, (Ed.) R.A. Schindler and M.M. Merzenich, Raven Press, New York, 1985, pp. 17-28.

Loeb, G.E. The Control of Responses of Mammalian Muscle Spindles During Normally Executed Motor Tasks. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 12:157-204, 1984.

Rindos, A.J., Loeb, G.E. and Levitan, H. Conduction velocity changes along lumbar primary afferents in cats. Exp. Neurol., 86:208-226, 1984.

Hoffer, J.A. and Loeb, G.E. A technique for reversible fusimotor blockade during chronic recording from spindle afferents in walking cats. Exp. Brain Res. Suppl., 7:272-279, 1983.

Loeb, G.E., White, M.W. and Jenkins, W.M. Biophysical considerations in electrical stimulation of the auditory nervous system. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 405:123-136, 1983.

Loeb, G.E., Byers, C.L., Rebscher, S.J., Casey, D.E., Fong, M.M., Schindler, R.A., Gray, R.F. and Merzenich, M.M. Design and fabrication of an experimental cochlear prosthesis. Med. & Biol. Engng. & Comput., 21:241-254, 1983.

Loeb, G.E. Finding common ground between robotics and physiology. Trends Neurosci., 6:203-204, 1983.

Loeb, G.E., White, M.W. and Merzenich, M.M. Spatial cross-correlation: A proposed mechanism for acoustic pitch perception. Biol. Cybernetics, 47:149-163, 1983.

O’Donovan, M.J., Hoffer, J.A. and Loeb, G.E. Physiological characterization of motor unit properties in intact cats. J. Neurosci. Meth., 7:137-149, 1983.

Loeb, G.E., McHardy, J., Kelliher, E.M. and Brummer S.B. Neural Prosthesis. In: Biocompatibility in Clinical Practice, Vol. II. (Ed.) D.F. Williams, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, 1982, pp. 123-149.

Hoffer, J.A., O’Donovan, M.J., Pratt, C.A. and Loeb, G.E. Discharge patterns in hindlimb motoneurons during normal cat locomotion. Science, 213:466-468, 1981.

Loeb, G.E. Intentional non-consonant tuning. Piano Technicians Journal, 24:#8:17-19, 1981.

Loeb, G.E. and Hoffer, J.A. Muscle spindle function during normal and perturbed locomotion in cats. In: Muscle Receptors and Movement, (Ed.) A. Taylor and A. Prochazka, MacMillan, London, 1981, pp 219-228.

Loeb, G.E. Somatosensory unit input to the spinal cord during normal walking. Can. J. Physiol & Pharm., 59:627-635, 1981.

Hoffer, J.A., Loeb, G.E. and Pratt, C.A. Single unit conduction velocities from averaged nerve cuff electrode records in freely moving cats. J. Neurosci., Meth. 4:211-225, 1981.

Chapin, J.K., Loeb, G.E. and Woodward, D.J. A simple technique for determination of footfall patterns of animals during treadmill locomotion. J. Neurosci. Meth., 2:97-102, 1980.

Duysens, J., Loeb, G.E. and Weston, B.J. Crossed flexor reflex responses and their reversal in freely walking cats. Brain Res., 197:538-542, 1980.

Duysens, J. and Loeb, G.E. Modulation of ipsi- and contralateral reflex responses in unrestrained walking cats. J. Neurophysiol., 44:1024-1037, 1980.

Hoffer, J.A. and Loeb, G.E. Implantable electrical and mechanical interfaces with nerve and muscle. Ann. Biomed. Eng., 8:351-360, 1980.

Loeb, G.E. and Marks, W.B. Epistemology and heuristics in neural network research. Behav. & Brain Sci., 3:556-557, 1980.

Bak, M.J. and Loeb, G.E. A pulsed integrator for EMG analysis. Electroenceph. & Clin. Neurophysiol., 47:738-741, 1979.

Loeb, G.E. and Duysens, J. Activity patterns in individual hindlimb primary and secondary muscle spindle afferents during normal movements in unrestrained cats. J. Neurophysiol., 42:420-440, 1979.

Loeb, G.E., Marks, W.B. and Beatty, P.G. Analysis and microelectronic design of tubular electrode arrays for chronic, multiple single unit recording from captured nerve fibers. Med. & Biol. Eng. & Comput., 15:195-201, 1977.

Loeb, G.E., Walker, A.E., Uematsu, S. and Konigsmark, B.W. Histological reaction to various conductive and dielectric films chronically implanted in the subdural space. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 11:195-210, 1977.

Loeb, G.E., Bak, M.J. and Duysens, J. Long-term unit recording from somatosensory neurons in the spinal ganglia of the freely walking cat. Science, 197:1192-1194, 1977.

Loeb, G.E., Bak, M.J., Salcman, M. and Schmidt, E.M. Parylene as a chronically stable, reproducible microelectrode insulator. IEEE-BME, 24:121-128, 1977.

Loeb, G.E. Decreased conduction velocity in the proximal projections of myelinated dorsal root ganglion cells in the cat. Brain Res., 103:381-385, 1976.

Loeb, G.E. Ventral root projections of myelinated dorsal root ganglion cells in the cat. Brain Res., 106:159-165, 1976.

Marks, W.B. and Loeb, G.E. Action currents, internodal potentials, and extracellular records of myelinated mammalian nerve fibers derived from node potentials. Biophys. J., 16:655-668, 1976.

Thomas, C.A., Jr., Springer, P.A., Loeb, G.E., Berwald-Netter, Y. and Okun, L.M. A miniature microelectrode array to monitor the bioelectric activity of cultured cells. Exp. Cell Res., 74:61-66, 1972.